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German dual citizenship: An easy guide + frequently asked questions

german dual citizenship

Dual citizenship, also understood as dual nationality, is the status of being a citizen of two countries simultaneously. German laws on dual citizenship have undergone significant changes in recent years, making it easier for individuals to obtain and maintain dual citizenship in Germany.

In this article, we’ll provide an easy guide to obtaining German dual citizenship, explore the advantages and disadvantages of holding dual citizenship, and answer some frequently asked questions about the process.

Whether you’re a native German looking to regain citizenship or a foreigner interested in becoming a German citizen, this article will provide valuable information and insights.

german dual citizenship

How to obtain German dual citizenship

There are several ways to obtain German dual citizenship:

  1. Birth to a German parent: Children born to a German parent are automatically entitled to German citizenship, regardless of the country of birth. Suppose the child is born outside of Germany. In that case, they can apply for a German passport and register their birth with the German embassy or consulate in the country of birth.
  2. Marriage to a German citizen: Non-German spouses of German citizens can apply for naturalization after living in Germany for at shortest three years and fulfilling certain requirements, such as passing a language test and demonstrating integration into German society.
  3. Naturalization after living in Germany: Non-German individuals who live in Germany for eight years and meet certain requirements, such as having a permanent residence permit and passing a language and citizenship test, can apply for naturalization and become German citizens.
  4. Descent from a German ancestor: Individuals who demonstrate ancestry from a German ancestor may be eligible to obtain German citizenship through a process called “right of blood” (jus sanguinis).
  5. Adoption by a German citizen: Children who a German citizen adopts may be eligible to obtain German citizenship, depending on the laws of the country of birth and the specific circumstances of the adoption.

Advantages of German dual citizenship

There are several advantages to obtaining German dual citizenship:

  1. Freedom to live and work in Germany without a visa: As a German resident, you can live and work in Germany without needing a visa or work permit. This can be particularly helpful if you want to study, work, or retire in Germany.
  2. Right to vote in German elections: German citizens over 18 have the right to vote in national and European elections and referendums. This gives you a say in the political decisions that affect your life and the country you call home.
  3. Access to free education and healthcare in Germany: As a German citizen, you and your family have the right to access
  4. free education and healthcare in Germany. This can be a significant financial benefit, especially if you plan to live in Germany long-term.
  5. Potential for increased travel opportunities: Depending on the country of your other citizenship, you may have access to additional travel destinations and visa-free travel.
  6. Sense of belonging: Obtaining German dual citizenship can provide a sense of belonging and connection to German culture and society. It can also allow you to pass your citizenship down to future generations.

 dual citizenship

Disadvantages of German dual citizenship

There are also some possible disadvantages to consider when obtaining German dual citizenship:

  1. Potential conflicts with the laws of the other country of citizenship: Some countries do not allow their citizens to hold dual citizenships, or they may have specific requirements that must be met to maintain both citizenship. It’s important to research and understands both countries’ laws before obtaining dual citizenship.
  2. Requirements to serve in the military or perform civic duties: Some countries, including Germany, require citizens to fulfill certain military or civic duties, such as jury duty or voting in elections. This can be a disadvantage if it conflicts with your personal or professional commitments.
  3. Potential tax obligations in both countries: As a dual citizen, you may be subject to taxes in both countries, even if you don’t live in either country. It’s important to understand and comply with the tax laws of both countries to avoid potential fines or penalties.
  4. Difficulty in renouncing citizenship: In some cases, it can be difficult or costly to renounce one of the citizenships if you no longer want to hold dual citizenship. This is something to consider before deciding to obtain dual citizenship.

Frequently asked questions

Here are some frequently asked questions about German dual citizenship:

Can I lose my German citizenship if I naturalize in another country?

  • In most cases, no. Germany allows its citizens to hold dual citizenship, and naturalizing in another country will not automatically result in losing German citizenship. However, there are some exceptions, such as if the individual actively renounces their German citizenship or if they obtain citizenship in a country that does not allow dual citizenship.

Can I have dual citizenship in any country, or are there restrictions?

  • Germany allows its citizens to hold dual citizenship with most countries. However, a few countries do not allow dual citizenship, or they may have specific requirements that must be met to maintain both citizenships. It’s important to research the laws of both countries before deciding to obtain dual citizenship.

Do I need to renounce my current citizenship to become a German citizen?

  •  In most cases, no. Germany allows its citizens to hold dual citizenship, so you do not need to renounce your citizenship to become a German citizen. However, it’s important to research the laws of both countries to ensure that you can hold dual citizenship.

Do I need to live in Germany to maintain my German citizenship?

  • In most cases, no. Germany allows its citizens to live abroad without losing their citizenship as long as they meet certain requirements, such as registering with the German embassy or consulate in the government of residence and obtaining a valid passport. However, suppose you are a German citizen who has lived abroad for an extended time and acquired another citizenship. In that case, you may be required to actively affirm your German citizenship to maintain it.

 dual citizenship


In conclusion, obtaining German dual citizenship can provide many benefits, such as the right to live and work in Germany without a visa, the right to vote in German elections, and access to free education and healthcare in Germany.

However, it’s important to consider the potential disadvantages and responsibilities before deciding. There may be potential conflicts with the laws of the other country of citizenship, requirements to serve in the military or perform civic duties, and potential tax obligations in both countries.

It’s also important to understand the process of obtaining German dual citizenship and the requirements that must be met to maintain both citizenships.

By considering all of these factors and thoroughly researching the laws of both countries, you can create an informed decision about whether or not German dual citizenship is right for you.

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